LEGNICA 1241 PDF

Historical disputations[ edit ] As with many historical battles, the exact details of force composition, tactics, and the actual course of the battle are lacking and sometimes contradictory. The general historical view is that it was a crushing defeat for the Polish and Moravian forces where they suffered heavy casualties. It is known that the Mongols had no intentions at the time of extending the campaign westward, [8] because they went to the Kingdom of Hungary to help the main Mongol army in the conquest of the country. Mongols[ edit ] The Mongol heavy cavalry in battle 13th or 14th century. The Mongol diversionary force, a detachment no less than one and no more than two tumens from the army of Subutai , demonstrated the advantages of the tactical mobility and speed of horseback archers. The Mongol tactics were essentially a long series of feigned attacks and faked withdrawals from widely dispersed groups, which were designed to inflict a constant slow drain by ranged fire, disrupt the enemy formation and draw larger numbers away from the main body into ambush and flank attacks.

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Legnica is the largest city of the conurbation and is a member of the Association of Polish Cities. Early history[ edit ] Archaeological research conducted in eastern Legnica in late s, showed the existence of a bronze foundry and the graves of three metallurgists. The find indicates a time interval about year BC. After invasions of Celts beyond upper Danube basin, the area of Legnica and north foothills of Sudetes was infiltrated by Celtic settlers and traders.

Battle of Legnica , medieval illuminated manuscript, collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles, California The city was first officially mentioned in chronicles from , [9] although settlement dates to the 7th century.

Dendrochronological research proves that during the reign of Mieszko I of Poland , a new fortified settlement was built here in a style typical of the early Piast dynasty. Benedict monastery. Main article: Battle of Legnica Legnica became famous for the battle that took place at Legnickie Pole near the city on 9 April during the First Mongol invasion of Poland.

The Christian army of the Polish duke Henry II the Pious of Silesia, supported by feudal nobility, which included in addition to Poles, Bavarian miners and military orders and Czech troops, was decisively defeated by the Mongols. In at the church of St. Peter, a parish school was established, probably the first of its kind in Poland. Already by there was a city council in Legnica. Also by the 14th century the city walls were erected.

Unfortunately, such a growth rate can not be maintained long. Shortly after the city reached its maximum population increase, wooden buildings which had been erected during this period of rapid growth were devastated by a huge fire. The fire decreased the number of inhabitants in the city and halted any significant further development for many decades.

Legnica, along with other Silesian duchies, became a vassal of the Kingdom of Bohemia during the 14th century and was included within the multi-ethnic Holy Roman Empire , however remained ruled by local dukes of the Polish Piast dynasty. In , a local rebellion prevented Legnica from falling under direct rule of the Bohemian kings. In , a Protestant university was established in Legnica, which, however, was closed in The first map of Silesia was made by native son Martin Helwig.

In a plague epidemic broke out, and in the Austrian army destroyed the suburbs. In , Legnica passed to direct Habsburg rule after the death of the last Silesian Piast duke and the last Piast duke overall, George William son of Duke Christian , despite the earlier inheritance pact by Brandenburg and Silesia, by which it was to go to Brandenburg.

The last Piast Duke was buried in the St. After the administrative reorganization of the Prussian state following the Congress of Vienna , Liegnitz and the surrounding territory Landkreis Liegnitz were incorporated into the Regierungsbezirk administrative district of Liegnitz, within the Province of Silesia on 1 May Along with the rest of Prussia, the town became part of the German Empire in during the unification of Germany.

After the Treaty of Versailles following World War I , Liegnitz was part of the newly created Province of Lower Silesia from to , then of the Province of Silesia from to , and again of the Province of Lower Silesia from to After the Nazis came to power in Germany, as early as , a boycott of local Jewish premises was ordered, and in the synagogue was burned down. The German population was expelled from the city between and and it was repopulated with Poles, many of whom were expelled from pre-war eastern Poland after its annexation by the Soviet Union.

By only a handful of Polonized Germans, prewar citizens of Liegnitz, remained of the pre German population. In the city celebrated the 65th anniversary of the "return of Legnica to Poland" and its liberation from the Nazis.

This fact had a strong influence on the life of the city. For much of the period, the city was divided into Polish and Soviet areas, with the latter closed to the public.

These were first established in July , when the Soviets forcibly ejected newly arrived Polish inhabitants from the parts of the city they wanted for their own use. The ejection was perceived by some as a particularly brutal action, and rumours circulated exaggerating its severity, though no evidence of anyone being killed in the course of it has come to light.

In April city officials estimated that there were 16, Poles, 12, Germans, and 60, Soviets in Legnica.

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Bitwa pod Legnicą

Legnica is the largest city of the conurbation and is a member of the Association of Polish Cities. Early history[ edit ] Archaeological research conducted in eastern Legnica in late s, showed the existence of a bronze foundry and the graves of three metallurgists. The find indicates a time interval about year BC. After invasions of Celts beyond upper Danube basin, the area of Legnica and north foothills of Sudetes was infiltrated by Celtic settlers and traders. Battle of Legnica , medieval illuminated manuscript, collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles, California The city was first officially mentioned in chronicles from , [9] although settlement dates to the 7th century. Dendrochronological research proves that during the reign of Mieszko I of Poland , a new fortified settlement was built here in a style typical of the early Piast dynasty.

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Battle of Legnica

He became Duke of Krakow, Silesia and Poland in In , he supported his father in an attempt to unify Poland to fight against one of its historic enemies: Conrad I of Masovia. In the winter of until , he participated in a crusade against the Prussians in the hope that his father will give him the control of Great Poland. But in June , ended his campaign in a bubble so Pope Gregory IX took Henry II the pious under his protection officially appointing him successor to his father. After the death of his father on March 19, , according to papal claims, becomes, as he hoped, Duke of Krakow, Silesia and Great Poland, inheriting a vast territory which became concerned soon to maintain solid unification under its own command. To do this, tried by all means to always have on his side the land aristocracy; without them the unifying policy initiated by his father could not take place. Against neighbouring powers, began an expansionist policy that, as early as , brought its fruits with the reconquest of Lubusz and Santok lost just the previous year in favour of Brandenburg.

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Bitwa pod Legnicą - klęska z rąk Tatarów

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