According to Jaspers, the critical attitude toward reality, which shapes and presents itself as an essential task of philosophical reflection, is of a descriptive character — it is placed in the neutrality of analysis and insight, and does not enter the sphere of moral judgment of a certain worldview. Inspired by the same request, in the plurality of thought and content, and in an international and transcultural dialogue, the Institute of Philosophy and the Croatian Karl Jaspers Society are organising an international gathering with a broad range of topics going beyond the usual disciplinary boundaries. Abstract submission Short abstracts words should be submitted by 1 September to hdkj karljaspers. The languages of the conference are Croatian and English. Attendance is free for all, i.
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Biography[ edit ] Karl Jaspers in Jaspers was born in Oldenburg in to a mother from a local farming community, and a jurist father.
It soon became clear that Jaspers did not particularly enjoy law, and he switched to studying medicine in with a thesis about criminology. Jaspers became dissatisfied with the way the medical community of the time approached the study of mental illness and gave himself the task of improving the psychiatric approach.
In Jaspers habilitated at the philosophical faculty of the Heidelberg University and gained there in a post as a psychology teacher. The post later became a permanent philosophical one, and Jaspers never returned to clinical practice.
During this time Jaspers was a close friend of the Weber family Max Weber also having held a professorship at Heidelberg. He became a philosopher, in Germany and Europe. In he fell under a publication ban as well. Many of his long-time friends stood by him, however, and he was able to continue his studies and research without being totally isolated. But he and his wife were under constant threat of removal to a concentration camp until 30 March , when Heidelberg was liberated by American troops.
He published a paper in in which he addressed the problem of whether paranoia was an aspect of personality or the result of biological changes. Although it did not broach new ideas, this article introduced a rather unusual method of study, at least according to the norms then prevalent.
Not unlike Freud , Jaspers studied patients in detail, giving biographical information about the patients as well as notes on how the patients themselves felt about their symptoms. This has become known as the biographical method and now forms a mainstay of psychiatric and above all psychotherapeutic practice. For example, in diagnosing a hallucination , it is more important to note that a person experiences visual phenomena when no sensory stimuli account for them, than to note what the patient sees.
What the patient sees is the "content", but the discrepancy between visual perception and objective reality is the "form". He argued that clinicians should not consider a belief delusional based on the content of the belief, but only based on the way in which a patient holds such a belief. See delusion for further discussion. Jaspers also distinguished between primary and secondary delusions.
He defined primary delusions as autochthonous, meaning that they arise without apparent cause, appearing incomprehensible in terms of a normal mental process. This is a slightly different use of the word autochthonous than the ordinary medical or sociological use as a synonym for indigenous.
Jaspers considered primary delusions to be ultimately "un-understandable", since he believed no coherent reasoning process existed behind their formation. This view has caused some controversy, and the likes of R.
Laing and Richard Bentall , p. Contributions to philosophy and theology[ edit ] Most commentators associate Jaspers with the philosophy of existentialism , in part because he draws largely upon the existentialist roots of Nietzsche and Kierkegaard , and in part because the theme of individual freedom permeates his work.
In Philosophy 3 vols, , Jaspers gave his view of the history of philosophy and introduced his major themes. Beginning with modern science and empiricism , Jaspers points out that as we question reality , we confront borders that an empirical or scientific method simply cannot transcend. At this point, the individual faces a choice: sink into despair and resignation, or take a leap of faith toward what Jaspers calls Transcendence.
In making this leap, individuals confront their own limitless freedom , which Jaspers calls Existenz , and can finally experience authentic existence. Mystic Christian traditions influenced Jaspers himself tremendously, particularly those of Meister Eckhart and of Nicholas of Cusa. He also took an active interest in Eastern philosophies , particularly Buddhism , and developed the theory of an Axial Age , a period of substantial philosophical and religious development. See Myth and Christianity: An Inquiry into the Possibility of Religion without Myth — a debate between Jaspers and Bultmann, The Noonday Press, New York, [ citation needed ] Jaspers wrote extensively on the threat to human freedom posed by modern science and modern economic and political institutions.
To forget it is guilt. It must be continually remembered. It was possible for this to happen, and it remains possible for it to happen again at any minute. Only in knowledge can it be prevented. However, he also wrote shorter works, most notably, Philosophy is for Everyman.
He was also skeptical of majoritarian democracy. Next to Nietzsche, or rather, prior to Nietzsche, I consider him to be the most important thinker of our post-Kantian age. With Goethe and Hegel , an epoch had reached its conclusion, and our prevalent way of thinking — that is, the positivistic , natural-scientific one — cannot really be considered as philosophy. Though Jaspers was certainly indebted to Kierkegaard and Nietzsche, he also owes much to more traditional philosophers, especially Kant and Plato.
Kant then became the philosopher for me and has remained so Nietzsche gained importance for me only late as the magnificent revelation of nihilism and the task of overcoming it.
KARL JASPERS PSYCHOLOGY OF WORLDVIEWS PDF
The first edition of his Allgemeine Psychopathologie General Psychopathology appeared in In , he was deprived of his academic chair and banned from lecturing and publishing because of his open opposition to the Nazi regime. From until his death, he was Professor of Philosophy in Basel. Consequently, the span of his opus ranges from philosophical logic 2 and the history of ideas 3 , 4 to politics The Question of German Guilt, 5 and the impact of nuclear weapons on the course of human development The Atom Bomb and the Future of Mankind,
International conference “Philosophy and Psychology of Worldviews”
Related Entries 1. He was the son of a banker and a representative of the parliament Landtagesabgeordneten , Carl Wilhelm Jaspers — and Henriette Tantzen — , who also came from a family that was involved in local parliament. Moreover, although he claimed not to have been influenced by any specifically ecclesiastical faith, his thought was also formed by the spirit of North German Protestantism, and his philosophical outlook can in many respects be placed in the religiously inflected tradition of Kant and Kierkegaard. Jaspers was a pupil at the Altes Gymnasium in Oldenburg. Since his early childhood, Jaspers suffered from chronic bronchiectasis that impaired his physical capabilities and awareness of his physical disabilities shaped his routine throughout his adult life and formed his sensitivity to psychological issues, including human suffering. Jaspers attributed his ability to conduct a normative routine and to devote his life to his creative work to his strict discipline regarding his health.