Start your review of Facundo: or Civilization and Barbarism Write a review Shelves: argentina , history , politics There are relative few works of politics and history that can be regarded as great literature. Written in , Facundo: Civilization and Barbarism tells of the civil war that erupted soon after Argentina declared and won its independence from Spain. On one side were the gaucho There are relative few works of politics and history that can be regarded as great literature. On one side were the gaucho caudillos such as Juan Manuel Rosas and Facundo Quiroga, who fought on the side of the Federales. On the other side were Rivadavia, Paz, and the Unitarios, who wanted a unified Argentina ruled from Buenos Aires and subjected to European influences with regard to commerce, education, and culture.
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In time, he learned how to manage the ranch and he established an authoritarian government in the area.
Sarmiento argues that this was one method of making his citizens like the "tamest, most orderly cattle known". He ruled the country not as he did during his first term as governor, but as a dictator, forcing all citizens to support his Federalist regime. He also expresses and analyzes his own opinion and chronicles some historic events. Sarmiento was an educator, a civilized man who was a militant adherent to the Unitarist movement.
During the Argentine civil war he fought against Facundo several times, and while in Spain he became a member of the Literary Society of Professors. During his presidency, Sarmiento concentrated on migration, sciences, and culture. His ideas were based on European civilization; for him, the development of a country was rooted in education.
This river estuary, called the Rio de Plata , is the location of Buenos Aires , the capital. Buenos Aires failed to spread civilization to the rural areas and as a result, much of the rest of Argentina was doomed to barbarism. They display their eagerness to prove their physical strength with horsemanship and knife fights.
Rural people participated in the war to demonstrate their physical strengths rather than because they wanted to civilize the country. In the end, the revolution was a failure because the barbaric instincts of the rural population led to the loss and dishonor of the civilized city—Buenos Aires. Sarmiento describes an incident in which Facundo killed a man, writing that this type of behaviour "marked his passage through the world".
Facundo was present as the governor of La Rioja. Sarmiento contends that Dorrego, a Federalist, was interested neither in social progress nor in ending barbaric behaviour in Argentina by improving the level of civilization and education of its rural inhabitants.
During the ensuing civil war between the two ideologies, Facundo conquered the provinces of San Luis , Cordoba and Mendoza. He went to Buenos Aires to confront Rosas, who sent him on another political mission. Sarmiento writes, "The red ribbon is a materialization of the terror that accompanies you everywhere, in the streets, in the bosom of the family; it must be thought about when dressing, when undressing, and ideas are always engraved upon us by association".
The social results of the French blockade, however, had been fruitful for the Argentine Republic, and served to demonstrate in all their nakedness the current state of mind and the new elements of struggle, which were to ignite a fierce war that can end only with the fall of that monstrous government.
I always thought of it as a literary work, as a historical novel". Literary critic Sorensen Goodrich argues that although Sarmiento was not the first to articulate this dichotomy, he forged it into a powerful and prominent theme that would impact Latin American literature.
Facundo set forth an oppositional message that promoted a more beneficial alternative for society at large. Although Sarmiento advocated various changes, such as honest officials who understood enlightenment ideas of European and Classical origin, for him education was the key. Caudillos like Facundo Quiroga are seen, at the beginning of the book, as the antithesis of education, high culture, and civil stability; barbarism was like a never ending litany of social ills.
Historian David Rock argues that "contemporary opponents reviled Rosas as a bloody tyrant and a symbol of barbarism". In linking Europe with civilization, and civilization with education, Sarmiento conveyed an admiration of European culture and civilization which at the same time gave him a sense of dissatisfaction with his own culture, motivating him to drive it towards civilization.
In this context, Latin American literature has been distinguished by the protest novel, or dictator novel ; the main story is based around the dictator figure, his behaviour, characteristics and the situation of the people under his regime. Writers such as Sarmiento used the power of the written word in order to criticize government, using literature as a tool, an instance of resistance and as a weapon against repression.
For him, writing was intended to be a catalyst for action. Toward the end of , Sarmiento was exiled for his political views. Covered with bruises received the day before from unruly soldiers, he wrote in French, "On ne tue point les idees" misquoted from "on ne tire pas des coups de fusil aux idees", which means "ideas cannot be killed by guns".
The government decided to decipher the message, and on learning the translation, said, "So! What does this mean? His words are presented as a "code" that needs to be "deciphered",  and unlike Sarmiento those in power are barbaric and uneducated.
He became president of Argentina in and was finally able to apply his theories to ensure that his nation achieved civilization. More recently, Kathleen Ross has undertaken a modern and complete translation, published in by the University of California Press.
Facundo: Or, Civilization and Barbarism
In time, he learned how to manage the ranch and he established an authoritarian government in the area. Sarmiento argues that this was one method of making his citizens like the "tamest, most orderly cattle known". He ruled the country not as he did during his first term as governor, but as a dictator, forcing all citizens to support his Federalist regime. He also expresses and analyzes his own opinion and chronicles some historic events.
FACUNDO CIVILIZATION AND BARBARISM PDF
Anx to Juana Manso. Subtitled Civilization and BarbarismFacundo contrasts civilization and barbarism as seen in early 19th-century Argentina. Admiral Pinzon — Chincha Islands. His arrogance reminds me of Benjamin Franklin. The Sentence of Saints and Fig-tree. He represented barbarism in the book but there seemed to be precious little to oppose the barbarism and represent civilisation.
Facundo: Or, Civilization and Barbarism Summary and Analysis of Chapters 1-2
It is a country that has suffered from the vast, empty expanses of desert and plains; its characteristic is immensity. Savages roam the land and traveling wagons must be wary of the hordes. Life outside towns is frightening and insecure. There are three different sections of the country, each with its own characteristics. In the north is the forest, and in the center are the plains; their vastness is as a sea on land.
Facundo: or Civilization and Barbarism