EIGEN HYPERCYCLE PDF

The hypercycle model is a particular class of self-replicative reaction networks and can be characterized by topological methods. Hypercycle elements should be simultaneously catalysts enzymes and replicators. They must have the ability to replicate itself and produce enzymes, that means, have a metabolism. Only ribozymes, RNA molecules with catalytic functions, [4] possess these characteristics.

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Introduction A hypercycle is an abstract model of organization of self-replicating molecules connected in a cyclic , autocatalytic manner. It was introduced in an ordinary differential equation ODE form by the Nobel Prize winner Manfred Eigen in [ 1 ] and subsequently further extended in collaboration with Peter Schuster [ 2 , 3 ].

It was proposed as a solution to the error threshold problem encountered during modelling of replicative molecules that hypothetically existed on the primordial Earth see: abiogenesis. The hypercycle is a special case of the replicator equation [ 4 ]. The most important properties of hypercycles are autocatalytic growth competition between cycles, once-for-ever selective behaviour, utilization of small selective advantage, rapid evolvability, increased information capacity , and selection against parasitic branches.

The hypercycle is a cycle of connected, self-replicating macromolecules. In the hypercycle, all molecules are linked such that each of them catalyses the creation of its successor, with the last molecule catalysing the first one. In such a manner, the cycle reinforces itself Fig 1.

Furthermore, each molecule is additionally a subject for self-replication. The resultant system is a new level of self-organization that incorporates both cooperation and selfishness. The coexistence of many genetically non-identical molecules makes it possible to maintain a high genetic diversity of the population.

This can be a solution to the error threshold problem, which states that, in a system without ideal replication , an excess of mutation events would destroy the ability to carry information and prevent the creation of larger and fitter macromolecules.

Moreover, it has been shown that hypercycles could originate naturally and that incorporating new molecules can extend them. Hypercycles are also subject to evolution and, as such, can undergo a selection process. As a result, not only does the system gain information, but its information content can be improved. From an evolutionary point of view, the hypercycle is an intermediate state of self-organization, but not the final solution.

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Hypercycle

According to the above model, in the initial phase, when several hypercycles exist, the selection of the hypercycle with the largest ql value takes place. When one hypercycle wins the selection and dominates the population, it is very difficult to replace it, even with a hypercycle with a much higher growth rate q. After that, the whole individualized and compartmentalized hypercycle can behave like a simple self-replicating entity. Compartmentalization provides some advantages for a system that has already established a linkage between units. Without compartments, genome integration would boost competition by limiting space and resources. Moreover, adaptive evolution requires the package of transmissible information for advantageous mutations in order not to aid less-efficient copies of the gene. The first advantage is that it maintains a high local concentration of molecules, which helps to locally increase the rate of synthesis.

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Hypercycle (chemistry)

According to the above model, in the initial phase, when several hypercycles exist, the selection of the hypercycle with the largest ql value takes place. When one hypercycle wins the selection and dominates the population, it is very difficult to replace it, even with a hypercycle with a much higher growth rate q. Compartmentalization and genome integration Hypercycle theory proposed that hypercycles are not the final state of organization, and further development of more complicated systems is possible by enveloping the hypercycle in some kind of membrane. After that, the whole individualized and compartmentalized hypercycle can behave like a simple self-replicating entity. Compartmentalization provides some advantages for a system that has already established a linkage between units.

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EIGEN HYPERCYCLE PDF

Felkree The hypercycle. A principle of natural self-organization. Part A: Emergence of the hypercycle. Hypercycle theory proposed that hypercycles are not the final state of organization, and further development of more complicated systems is possible by enveloping the hypercycle in some kind of membrane. A hypercycle with translation consists of polynucleotides I i hypercylce concentration x i and polypeptides E i with concentration y i. When one hypercycle wins the selection and dominates the population, it is very difficult to replace it, even with a hypercycle with a much higher growth rate q.

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Manfred Eigen

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