Also, particular methods have assumed prominent positions in certain areas of application. Finite element methods, for example, are used almost exclusively for solving structural problems; spectral methods are becoming the preferred approach to global atmospheric modelling and weather prediction; and the use of finite difference methods is nearly universal in predicting the flow around aircraft wings and fuselages. These apparently unrelated techniques are firmly entrenched in computer codes used every day by practicing scientists and engineers. Many of these scientists and engineers have been drawn into the computational area without the benefit offormal computational training.

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In doing so the author intends to d e m o n s t r a t e the connections and similarities of what are conventionally regarded as entirely separate methods. In reality, although the author sometimes uses FD based techniques for numerical comparison, etc, the book really focuses upon FE and GE methods.

Briefly, the book begins with a historical survey of m e t h o d s of weighted residuals, focusing on the Galerkin type methods. It then summarizes some theoretical properties of the Galerkin formulation and provides a n u m b e r of examples illustrating the use of traditional Galerkin m e t h o d s in solving some real problems. The second chapter begins to introduce the ideas of low order trial functions and the finite element methods.

The third chapter focuses on Galerkin FE methods and includes a description of triangular and rectangular elements. However, I am not convinced that after reading this chapter I could actually sit down and write a FE program. Also the t r e a t m e n t of higher order elements is fairly brief. This chapter is c o m p l e t e d with what I regard as fairly sketchy descriptions of some real applications.

Chapter 4 deals fairly briefly with a few special topics time splitting, least squares residual fitting, special trial functions for singularities, etc, and finally a few words on integral equations and boundary element methods. Chapter 5 addresses the o t h e r main numerical thrust of this book - spectral or global methods. Again the techniques are well explained, but I am still not sure I could move away and code up a problem. The applications are interesting, and the references to further work helpful.

In chapter 6 the author a t t e m p t s to provide some comparison and relative assessment of the FE, F D and spectral global methods. Although, the chapter made interesting reading it is clear that to say anything serious in such an assessment would require a great deal more space than is allocated in this monograph.

The last chapter is interesting as it looks at the accuracy of Galerkin m e t h o d s normally in the c o n t e x t of finite elements in a number of classical problems. It has a good reference list and the account is well presented.

Finally, there are a couple of program listings of some numerical procedures described in the book that could prove useful.

Overall, I like the b o o k and I believe it would be a useful addition for anyone involved in the use of FE m e t h o d s for transport problems.

F o r most of us, though, the book represents good reading. The generality of his experimental law applying to such a variety of materials provided H o o k e with proper cause for excitement. This experimental o u t l o o k was also well matched in France by the physicist Mariotte, who a few years later came i n d e p e n d e n t l y to the same result, which was published posthumously in A l t h o u g h b o t h these men were keen experimentalists they were anxious to have some theoretical background to support their results.

Gould designed the book to fill a gap which exists in some university courses between the undergraduate and graduate teaching of solid mechanics. It is quite short, c o r n - Appl. Modelling, , Vol. The first covers theoretical aspects and the second is principally concerned with illustrative problems interspaced with some additional theory. Gould himself claims little, if any, originality for the b o o k other than the selection, organization and presentation of the material. The adequate n u m b e r o f diagrams, m a n y of which are reproduced with permission from o t h e r texts, are acknowledged in the references at the end of each chapter.

There are, as would of course be expected, references to Love. Theory o f Elasticity by T i m o c h e n k o and G o o d i e r is naturally included, though strangely enough only the edition.

Chapter 1 covers some mathematical preliminaries. It contains a standard i n t r o d u c t o r y description of cartesian tensors using the subscript n o t a t i o n together with matrix representation where appropriate.

The Gibbsian name dyadic is perpetuated for the second-order tensor. The algebra of cartesian tensors is limited to the e m p l o y m e n t of the 6 and e symbols. Chapter 2 includes the f o r m u l a t i o n of a second-order tensor as a dyadic built from a sum of j u x t a p o s e d vectors, the so-called dyads.

No use is made of the tensor dyadic product with its customary product symbol. This is a pity since the use of the tensor product symbol gives a clear sign, separating the c o m p o n e n t s of the p r o d u c t which may have very different physical characteristics.

This is highlighted when the student moves on from cartesian to general tensors. It is to he assumed that the student will be well aware of the dual nature of force and displacement types of vectors from earlier courses. Before going on to the problem section of the b o o k , I would like to c o m m e n t on two theoretical statements. The six equations are not i n d e p e n d e n t as stated in Chapter 3, since they are coupled by easily obtained relations which yield a null 3 x 3 matrix to express compatibility.

This is well described in L.

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## Computational Galerkin Methods

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## Computational Galerkin methods

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