Kennel Cough in Dogs Kennel cough, the common name given to canine infectious respiratory disease CIRD complex, is a highly contagious respiratory disease among dogs. Kennel cough is found throughout the world and is known to infect a high percentage of dogs at least once during their lifetime. It is also sometimes referred to as bordetellosis, after the bacteria most commonly associated with the symptoms. Young puppies often suffer the most severe complications that can result from kennel cough since they have immature immune systems. Also at increased risk are older dogs, who may have decreased immune capabilities; pregnant dogs, who also have lowered immunity; and dogs with preexisting respiratory diseases.
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Download the pdf Canine infectious tracheobronchitis CITB , also colloquially known as canine cough, is a highly contagious multifactorial disease characterized by acute or chronic inflammation of the trachea and bronchial airways. It is usually a mild, self-limiting disease but may progress to fatal bronchopneumonia in puppies or to chronic bronchitis in debilitated adult or aged dogs.
It is commonly seen where dogs are in close contact with each other, e. The disease can spread rapidly among susceptible dogs housed in close confinement and signs can persist for some weeks.
Etiology and Pathogenesis Canine parainfluenza virus, canine adenovirus 2 CAV-2 , or canine distemper virus can be the primary or sole pathogen involved. Canine reoviruses types 1, 2, and 3 , canine herpesvirus, and canine adenovirus 1 CAV-1 are of questionable significance in this syndrome.
Concurrent infections with several of these agents are common. The role of Mycoplasma sp has not been clearly established. Stress and extremes of ventilation, temperature, and humidity apparently increase susceptibility to, and severity of, the disease. Clinical and Pathological Findings The prominent clinical sign is paroxysms of harsh, dry coughing, which may be followed by retching and gagging. The cough is easily induced by gentle palpation of the larynx or trachea.
Affected dogs demonstrate few if any additional clinical signs except for partial anorexia. On auscultation, respiratory sounds may be essentially normal.
In advanced cases, inspiratory crackles and expiratory wheezes are heard. Body temperature may be only slightly increased and WBC counts usually remain normal. Development of more severe signs, including fever, purulent nasal discharge, depression, anorexia, and a productive cough, especially in puppies, indicates a complicating systemic infection such as distemper or bronchopneumonia.
Stress, particularly due to adverse environmental conditions and improper nutrition, may contribute to a relapse during convalescence. During the acute and subacute inflammatory stages, the air passages are filled with frothy, serous, or mucopurulent exudate. In chronic bronchitis, they contain excessive viscid mucus. The epithelial linings are roughened and opaque, a result of diffuse fibrosis, edema, and mononuclear cell infiltration. There is hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the tracheobronchial mucous glands and goblet cells.
The act of coughing is an attempt to remove the accumulations of mucus and exudate from the respiratory passages. Diagnosis CITB should be suspected whenever the characteristic cough suddenly develops 5—10 days after exposure to other susceptible or affected dogs. Severity usually diminishes during the first 5 days, but the disease can persists for some weeks. The diagnosis is usually made from the history and clinical signs and by elimination of other causes of coughing. In chronic bronchitis, chest radiographs may show an increase in linear and peribronchial markings.
Bronchoscopy reveals inflamed epithelium and often mucopurulent mucus in the bronchi. In addition, the procedure allows collection of biopsy and swab samples for in vitro assay.
Bronchial washing is an additional diagnostic aid that may demonstrate causative agents or significant cellular responses eg, eosinophils. Source: Merck Vet Manual Canine Cough, or canine infectious tracheobronchitis, is a highly contagious respiratory disease in dogs. Found worldwide, the disease will affect a relatively high percentage of dogs in their lifetime. Learn how you can do your part to protect against Canine Cough and keep bonds strong.
Tracheobronchitis (Bronchitis) in Dogs
Symptoms[ edit ] The incubation period is 5—7 days with a range of 3— The presence of a fever varies from case to case. Types[ edit ] Although kennel cough is considered to be a multifactorial infection, there are two main forms. The first is more mild and is caused by B. This form occurs most regularly in autumn, and can be distinguished by symptoms such as a retching cough and vomiting.
Infectious Tracheobronchitis in Dogs
Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis
Loss of appetite Possible development of pneumonia Severe cases are typically only seen in dogs with a compromised immune system or puppies who have not yet been vaccinated. Types Your dog may experience a mild or severe case of infectious tracheobronchitis. In the mild form, your dog will have a recurrent cough, however, will continue to have a good appetite and be alert. In the more severe form of the disease, your dog will have a fever, lose his appetite and possibly experience pneumonia.