Synonym: Rhadinaphelenchus cocophi1us Cobb J. Goodey Note: Hunt considers Rhadinaphelenchus cocophi1us a valid scientific name. Giblin-Davis, Paul S. Lehman, and Renato N.
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Top of page R. It can also seriously damage oil palms. The percentage loss can vary from a few percent to complete destruction of young coconuts. Young coconut palms easily succumb to R. There is no record of any tree, once affected, having recovered.
The heaviest losses due to R. Diagnosis Top of page Recovery of R. In the method originally used by Fenwick Fenwick and Maharaj, , diseased coconut tissue is chopped into fine pieces about 1 cm thick, placed in a large funnel of water, whose stem is closed at one end with a tube and clip, and whose neck has a light plug of cotton acting as a filter separating the tissue from the ml of clear water in the stem. This can be modified by actually macerating the diseased tissue in a blender in order to liberate more lethargic nematodes.
The following modification was devised by Schuilling and Van Dinther The resultant suspension is made up to 1 litre in a bottle and allowed to stand for 30 minutes. The contents of the bottle are then sedimented over another container filled with water. After 30 minutes the contents of the lower bottle are discarded. The extracted core is placed in a blender with 50 ml of water and processed for 2 minutes. The contents of the blender are then poured into a dish and left for 20 minutes for the nematodes to emerge.
The nematodes are then recovered by sieving. Generally, advantage is taken of the level of activity of the nematode during extraction methods. In coconut and the palmiste palms the nematodes are most active in the stem tissue except in the very necrotic regions. The core tissue generally shows a red cylinder of necrotic tissue. Detection and Inspection Top of page The stem of the coconut needs to be examined either by cutting through, or by taking a sample from the living tree.
The nematodes are similar to species belonging to Bursaphelenchus. Prevention and Control Top of page Due to the variable regulations around de registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control.
Epidemiology Red ring disease in new groves generally begins by infection of a year old palm by the palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum, carrying R.
Effective patterns of control may be employed during several phases of the development of the epidemic. The dispersal rate from the primary infector plant depends upon the development of R. Parasitism by the nematodes may limit the number of developing vectors and reduce the size, fecundity and longevity of the vector adults. Three months after infection, a new tree can be infected by a vector female emerging from the infector plant.
If the insect is unmated and infertile, no vector will develop from this infection and red ring can die out when the diseased palm dies. This diseased tree, however, forms a source of inoculum as it becomes chemically attractive to all palm weevils including potential vectors.
Phytosanitary measures of control are most effective at this time since disease symptoms are apparent before the progeny of the newly invaded insects emerge after 3 months. Control in Coconut There are no simple means of controlling R. Control is based on prevention rather than cure either by the destruction of infested palm material by cutting and burning, or by the injection of herbicides and burning, or by trapping and killing of the weevil vectors before they spread the nematodes.
Many trees show yellowing and browning of leaves which may not be due to R. To prevent unnecessary destruction of trees, a core sample of the trunk should be taken with a 2-cm pipe see Detection section to determine the presence of R. Trapping Traps or guard baskets are designed to protect plantations from frequent outbreaks of R.
They do so by attracting and killing palm weevils which may enter the plantations from nearby diseased trees. Guard baskets are made of 2-cm-mesh wire. They are cylindrical, 1 m high and 0. These baskets are filled with chunks of fresh tissue from diseased coconut trees to attract the weevil.
The guard baskets are sprayed with pesticide and distributed on the ground in the plantations at one basket per acre 2. This procedure is especially recommended in the dry season when the weevils are most active in the cool nights. Guard baskets remain for about 2 weeks, after which the tissue and insecticide in the basket should be burnt. Fresh tissue should be placed in the basket and treated as previously described. Several variations are used in practice with different types of tissue, such as pineapple and papaya Griffith and Koshy, References Top of page Alcocer GL, Fitofilo, Mexico, Report of the Department of Agriculture for the Year Belize, British Honduras: Ministry of Agriculture.
Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 5 No. Briton-Jones HR, The Diseases of the Coconut Palm. Cabrera CJ, El anillo rojo del cocotero del Pacifico. Agricultura tropical, Colombia, Dean CG, Red ring disease of Cocos nucifera L.
PQR database. Report on a visit to Venezuela. Fenwick DW, Maharaj S, Recovery of Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus Cobb, Goodey, from coconut tissues. Journal of Helminthology, Association of the red ring nematode and other nematode species with the palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum. Journal of Nematology, 22 2 Gontalves RD, Biologico, Goodey JB, Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilos Cobb, n.
Nematologica, Griffith R, Koshy PK, Nematode parasites of coconut and other palms. Liceras Zarate L, El nematodo: Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus Cobb, Goodey, , agente causal de la enfermedad del Anillo Rojo del cocotero recientemente detectado en Tumbes. Agricultura y Ganaderia Tropical, Peru, Maas PWT, Two important cases of nematode infestation in Surinam.
In: Peachey JE, ed. Nematodes of Tropical Crops. Nickle WR, Nowell W, Red ring disease of coco-nuts. Agricultural News, Trinidad, O anel vermelho do coqueiro, no estado do Ceara. A case study. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, Singh ND, A survey of red ring disease of coconut palm in Grenada, West Indies.
Plant Disease Reporter, Thorne G, Principles of Nematology. Tidman DA, Agricultural and horticultural problems of Brazil. World Crops, Distribution References.