Отсутствуют в Австралии и Новой Зеландии. В США были впервые обнаружены в году [4] [5] [6] [7] [2]. Всего за пару лет эта странная болезнь уничтожила большую часть пчёл острова. Затем сходные проявления отмечали в Ирландии и Шотландии. Предполагали отравления, воздействие удобрений, кишечных паразитов. И только в году Джон Ренни профессор из Абердинского университета Шотландии нашёл в трахеях пчёл микроскопических клещей, а в году описал, назвав Acarapis woodi в честь английского энтомолога Вуда.

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Swarming can move mites to other areas. Bees may rob honey from other hives, and can come into contact with mites then. Colonies weakened by mite infestation are more vulnerable to robbing Woodward and Quinn, The rapid spread of the mites observed in the USA was facilitated by migratory beekeepers, who moved bee colonies from southern states northwards for crop pollination.

Sales of queens and package bees by commercial bee businesses also assisted in dispersing the mites Woodward and Quinn, This Act prohibited the importation of any honey bee into the USA, although in more recent years it has been relaxed somewhat Woodward and Quinn, The movement of bees, equipment and supplies worldwide has assisted in spreading bee diseases to all areas where bees are raised OIE, Pathogen Characteristics Top of page The mites are invisible to the naked eye; the females are microns long and microns wide, in comparison to the males, which are microns long and microns wide.

They have white oval bodies with a shiny, smooth cuticle. There are several long fine hairs on the body and legs, and the mouthparts are beak-like and elongated. Woodward and Quinn, Denmark et al. Idiosoma ovoid or nearly pyriform; dorsal shield and plates faintly sclerotized, with indistinct punctures. Propodosoma lacking pseudostigmatic sensilla; two pairs of long, attenuate setae, verticals V1 and scapulars Sce. Ventral apodemes I forming Y-shaped structure with anterior median apodeme a conspicuous transverse band crossing the thorax in front of the scutellum , not joining transverse apodeme.

Apodemes IV extending to bases of trochanters IV. Posterior median apodeme rudimentary, sometimes as faintly formed Y- shaped structure. Leg 1 robust with single hooked claw. Leg IV stubby, widely spaced; femur-genu and tibiotarsus functioning as one segment; tibiotarsus IV two times as long as broad; femur-genu broader than long, with three setae unequal length; tibiotarsus abruptly narrowed, almost straight, about two times as long as broad.

For a more complete description see Delfinado-Baker and Baker []. Male: Length to microns, width 60 to 77 microns. Similar to female except for sexual differences. Posterior median apodeme indistinct, sometimes forming weak Y-shaped structure. Apodemes V present as weakened transverse apodeme barely discernible. Leg I more robust than others.

Males and nymphs are difficult to separate from other known species.


Acarapis woodi





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