Shelves: history-empires This book provides the history of Islam from the circumstance that gave rise to Islam, Islams rise and fall in Arabia under the Caliphate, Islams revival and fall under the Turkish Sultanate, and a brief explanation of what happened after that. Focusing on the time span circa C. The political and religious weakness of alternative states and empires gave space for Islam to rise. Focusing on the time span circa — C.
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Such recent works as Dr. It is true that the task confronting scholars in this field is enormous. The language barrier alone is not easily surmounted. Many relevant texts remain unpublished, and many of the problems to be solved have scarcely been formulated, much less seriously tackled. Thus, for example, the social and economic history of medieval Islam has only just begun to be investigated.
The unfamiliarity of the subject daunts some prospective students. The rhythms of Muslim history are not our rhythms. To give but one instance, the memorable struggles of Church and State, from which emerged the Western theory and practice of civil and political liberty, had no counterpart in Islam, which knows no distinction between secular and ecclesiastical, and is puzzled by our concepts of representative government and a free society.
In this book I have aimed to provide a brief sketch of a vast theme, a rough outline which may serve as an introduction for those wishing to acquire a general view of the Muslim world during the Middle vii PREFACE Ages. It would be absurd to claim it as a work of original research; it does not profess to trace the development of Islam as a religion, and it omits all but the briefest mention of Muslim Spain and India.
I have tried to indicate the main trends of Islamic historical evolution down to the Mongol conquests, to avoid a mere recital of facts and names and dates, and to explain rather than to narrate. Hence I have exercised a rigid selection of material; much of moment has been left out, and the picture presented may often be unavoidably over-simplified.
I wish to express my deep obligation to Professor C. Boyle, Head of the Department of Persian Studies in the same University, who kindly read the typescript and made many valuable suggestions for improving it. Perhaps I may also be allowed to say how much my understanding of Islamic history has been deepened by the writings of Sir Hamilton Gibb and Professor Bernard Lewis, whose influence will be easily detected in these pages. In facing the perennial problem of the transliteration of Oriental names, I can claim no consistency.
Abd A : slave, servant. Ahdallah: slave of God. Abu A : father of. Agha T : chief, master. Ahl A : family, household, people. Ahl al-Kitab: people of the Book, i. Jews and Christians possessing their own scriptures. Ain or Ayn A : eye, spring, fountain. Ak T : white. Alp T : hero. Amir A : commander, governor, prince. Ansar A : helpers, Medinans who supported Muhammad. Ata T : father. Bahr A : sea. Bahr al-Rum: the Roman Sea, i. Banu A : sons of, followed by name of tribe, e.
Bait or Bayt A : house, tent. Bait al-Mal: house of wealth, i. Barid A : post service. Bey or Beg T : lord, chief. Dagh T : mountain. Dair or Dayr A : Christian monastery. Dar A : house, dwelling, abode. Dar al-Islam: the abode of Islam, where Islam is the established religion, as opposed to Dar al-Harb, the abode of war, non-Muslim lands.
Jews and Christians under Muslim rule. Dihkan P : village headman, small farmer. Din A : religion, faith, often found in name-compounds, e. Nur al-Din Nureddin , light of the faith.
Dinar A : Arabic gold coin from Latin denarius. Dirham A : Arabic silver coin. Diwan A : office, register, government department, also a collection of poetry or prose. Ghazi A : champion, great fighter. Hadith A : tradition. Hajj A : pilgrimage to Mecca. Hijra Hegira A : emigration, flight, withdrawal. Ikhshid P : prince.
Ikta A : fief, estate whose rents are used for the payment of civil or military officers. Ilm A : science, learning. Imam A : leader. Isnad A : chain of witnesses. Jabal A : mountain. Jazirah A : island. Jihad A : holy war.
Jinn A : beings distinct from men and angels, capable of inflicting injury. Jizya A : poll-tax levied on non-Muslims. Jund A : army, military district. Kabilah A : tribe. Kadi cadi, qadi A : judge. Kara T : black. Kasr A : castle. Katib A : secretary. Khan T : chief, prince. Kharaj A : land-tax. Khatun T : queen. Khutba A : mosque sermon. Kiblah A : direction of Mecca.
Kuds A : holy. Al-Kuds: the holy city , i. Kul T : lake. Baikal: rich lake. Madrasa A : college. Maghrib A : the west. Mahdi A : the guided one, supposed to appear in the last days. Malik A : king. Mulk: kingdom. Mamluk A : slave. Masjid A : mosque. Mawla A : client, helper, freed siave.
Minbar A : mosque pulpit. Muharram A : first month of Muslim year. Mulhid A : heretic, deviator. Nabi A : prophet. Nahr A : river. Nasara A : Christians, Nazarenes.
Ridda A : apostasy. Salat A : ritual prayer, divine service. Sarai P : palace. Shah P : king. Shahid A : witness, martyr. Sira A : traditional biography of Muhammad.
Sufi A : mystic. Sultan A : power, authority, sovereign ruler. Sunna A : custom, practice of the Muslim community.
John Joseph Saunders
Such recent works as Dr. It is true that the task confronting scholars in this field is enormous. The language barrier alone is not easily surmounted. Many relevant texts remain unpublished, and many of the problems to be solved have scarcely been formulated, much less seriously tackled. Thus, for example, the social and economic history of medieval Islam has only just begun to be investigated. The unfamiliarity of the subject daunts some prospective students. The rhythms of Muslim history are not our rhythms.
A History of Medieval Islam
Shakree The best feature of Saunders treatment of this period is the manner in which he easily cuts through all the confusion of the many movements, particularly medievql various Shiite movements, to find the simplest way to explain them and their importance. The Turks had arrived just in time to confront the Crusades and the Mongols. Saunders I was hoping for something more substantial. The proponent will succinctly try to examine this hypothesis, whether an indispensable Islam have unified half of the world through an inconsequential Arab civilization and factors that brought occupations into reality.
History of Medieval Islam
A History of Medieval Islam By J J Saunders