Kazilabar Fttu, a larger split ratio implies greater optical power and bandwidth splitting, which creates the need for an increased power budget to support the physical reach. Equipment venders focus on optimizing the function and practicability. GPON aims at transmission speeds greater than or equal to 1. Refer the following image.
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When deploying FTTH networks, active and passive infrastructure go hand in hand. It is clear that the timely investment in active equipment mainly at network side can be optimised once the correct passive splitting arrangement has been chosen. With single splitter placement, the splitter can be situated closer to the customers in case of high end-user density such, or can be placed in a more central location to improve the spread of customers in case of less dense end-user locations.
Further optimisation can be achieved by distributing the splitters in more than one level, which reduces the length of fibre required and eases the configuration, but increases the number of locations where splitters are installed. Figure 8 3. The former possibility is easy and straightforward to implement, the latter limits the fibre usage in the access loop and is therefore suitable for FTTB solutions. From the POP, individual feeder fibres for each subscriber are laid down towards some distribution point in the field — typically a splice point — either in an underground enclosure or a street cabinet.
From this distribution point, fibres are laid towards each individual home. However, since the fibre densities in the feeder and drop part are very different, it is likely that different cabling techniques will be employed in the two parts of the network.
In the feeder part deployments can be greatly facilitated by existing conventional ducts, and by other rights of way like sewers or tunnels. Fibres arriving in the POP are terminated on an optical distribution frame ODF — this is a flexible fibre management solution that makes it possible to connect any customer to any port on the switches in the POP.
Due to the large number of fibres handled in a POP, the density of the fibre management solution has to be very high in order to reduce space required. This figure shows an example of a high-density ODF that can terminate and connect more than fibres in a single rack.
For illustration purposes it is positioned next to a rack with active equipment that can terminate fibres on individual ports. Fibre Figure 9: High density fibre management. This minimizes the number of unused active network elements in the POP. Figure Ethernet network diagram. Both specifications are defined for a nominal maximum reach of 10km. To separate the directions on the same fibre wavelength-division duplexing is employed, such that for each of the bit rate classes two specifications for transceivers are defined, one for upstream from the customer towards the POP and one for downstream from the POP towards the customer.
The table provides the fundamental optical parameters of these specifications: Base- Base- Base- Base- Transmit direction Downstream Upstream Downstream Upstream Nominal transmit nm nm nm nm wavelength Minimum range 0. Some types can bridge significantly longer distances to suit deployment in rural areas. This makes it possible to use off-the-shelf video transmission equipment to insert an additional signal at nm in order to carry the RF video overlay signal on the same fibre. Quite frequently, however, there is a need to provide RF video broadcast overlays in order to 18 www.
In PON architectures this is typically accomplished by providing an RF video signal, compatible with cable TV solutions, over an additional wavelength at nm. In point-to-point fibre installations this can be achieved by two different approaches, depending on the possibilities for fibre installation: In the first approach an additional fibre per customer is deployed in a tree structure, which carries only an RF video signal that can be fed into the in-house coaxial distribution network.
In this case the split factors e. Figure RF video overlay using a second fibre per In the second approach a video signal is subscriber, deployed in a tree structure. The RF video signal carried by a dedicated wavelength from a video-OLT is first split into multiple identical streams by an optical splitter and then fed into each point-to-point fibre by means of triplexers.
On the customer side the wavelengths are separated, the nm signal converted into an RF signal for coax distribution, and the nm signal made available on an Ethernet port.
Figure Insertion of RF video signal into point-to- point fibres. Today, owing to the proliferation of digital devices inside the home — including but not limited to computers, digital cameras, DVD players, game consoles and PDAs — the environment is changing. We distinguish two functions in the home environment: the ONU, where the fibre is terminated, and the customer premise equipment CPE , which provides the necessary networking and service support.
These functions may be integrated or separate, depending on the demarcation point between service provider and end-user, and how the responsibility is shared, which will be linked to the commercial contract. As more advanced devices and technologies are adopted, the concept of the residential gateway has emerged. To help address concerns related to home and device management, the Broadband Forum previously the DSL Forum created the TR management interface standard, which is now available on most modern residential gateways.
Home connectivity opens up a new competitive landscape in which network operators, internet service providers, IT-vendors, and consumer electronics vendors compete to capture the greatest customer share. By that we mean that global peak and average bandwidth will inexorably increase and access bit-rate requirements will soon exceed Mbps. But this is not the limit; in future PON parameters will be pushed to even higher values.
XG-PON1, as the proposed standard is called, is a natural continuation in the evolution of PON technologies, increasing bandwidth four times to 10Gbps, reach from 20 to 60 km, and split from 64 to — although reach and split maxima are not obtainable simultaneously. Most importantly, these evolutionary technologies will avoid the need for significant upgrades to the installed outside plant. GPON extenders increase reach further to 60km or end-users.
FTTH HANDBOOK 2010 PDF
The important factor is to configure Layer 2 channel for proper forwarding of service data. However, anticipating the continued evolution of optical modules, the TC layer must consider ratios up to handbookk Each port of the AWG is wavelength dependent and the optical transceiver on each ONT transmits optical signals in a specified wavelength determined by the port on the AWG. It describes the signals, the physical media, and the mechanical and electrical interfaces. GEM can fragment its payload. MPCP is very flexible, easy to implement.
FTTH Handbook 2010 v3.1